Obesity; It is defined by the World Health Organization as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in the body to the extent that it impairs health” and in the same way, a body mass index above 30 is defined as obesity. Obesity also causes many chronic diseases. Bariatric surgery is a very effective treatment for obesity.
Nutrition after bariatric surgery is regulated by our dietitians. The days vary according to the type of surgery, but the stages are the same. Paying attention to one’s nutrition is very important for a successful weight loss.
Adequate macro and micro nutrients for a healthy weight loss are calculated separately for each patient and personalized diets are created. Since the person is fed very slowly after the surgery, vitamin-mineral supplementation should definitely be done. Foods and beverages consumed after surgery should maximize weight loss and minimize reflux, early satiety and dumping syndrome. In order to avoid dumping syndrome, it is recommended that patients be fed little and often. To achieve these goals, a gradual diet is applied.
Nutrition has four stages;
- Liquid Period
The first phase is the liquid phase. The person is in the liquid period; water, unsweetened and grain-free compote, diluted apple/cherry/pineapple juices (without sugar), lean meat/chicken stocks, lactose-free milk-kefir-yogurt-ayran, probiotic yogurt, almond/soy milk, decaffeinated coffee, light tea, fennel/balm You can consume herbal teas such as / chamomile / ginger. At least 1.5 liters of fluid should be consumed. The most important is protein powder. Because the person cannot be fed with solid foods, protein intake is very low. Muscle loss occurs as a result of malnutrition from protein. To minimize this, the patient should use protein powder. During this period, everything should be filtered and consumed without grains. Products such as oil, tomato paste, onion, garlic, spices (except for a small amount of salt and cumin) should not be used. Since caffeine intake is not desired at the first stage, coffee-tea consumption should be decaffeinated. In order to avoid gas problems, milk and dairy products should be preferred without lactose. Take very small sips and drink slowly.
- Puree Period
In this period, the foods that patients eat consist of foods that have been blenderized or liquefied with sufficient liquid. However, omelet, tuna, well-boiled very soft meat/chicken are not suitable for this diet. During this period, fruit and vegetable purees are consumed. In this period, a minimum of 1.5 liters of fluid should be taken in the same way. During this period, soft-boiled eggs, lactose-free cottage cheese or curd cheese, vegetable puree, fruit puree, lactose-free yogurt-ayran-kefir-milk, baby foods with a sugar content not exceeding 10 grams, and most importantly protein powder should be consumed. While making vegetable puree, oil, tomato paste, onion, garlic and spices (except salt and cumin) should not be added. For fruits; Fruits containing citric acid should not be consumed, as it may upset the stomach. Ready-made fruit yogurt/kefir should also not be used because the amount of sugar is high in such products. Very hot or very cold foods should be avoided. Only one new food should be tried at a meal to better understand which food can be tolerated. The protein target to be taken daily is 60-80 grams.
At this point, it is very important to make a solid-liquid separation. After the main meal, it is necessary to wait half an hour before consuming something liquid.
- Transition to Solid Period
During this period, the patient gradually begins to switch to solid foods. It is started to consume very well cooked fish/meatballs/meat/chicken. At this point, if the person can tolerate it, a small amount of olive oil, tomato paste, onion and garlic can be added to the prepared vegetable dishes. However, all foods (onions, garlic, etc.) must be thoroughly cooked. The person is now; starts to consume lean/low-fat cheeses, boiled eggs, olives, 1 teaspoon of olive oil corresponding to 1 change of oil per meal, well-cooked fish-meatballs-meat-chicken, minced meat/meat vegetable dishes. The protein target to be taken daily is 60-80 grams.
- Solid Period
In line with the recommendations for healthy nutrition, planning is made by encouraging the consumption of raw vegetables first (at the 2nd month), then legumes and nuts (at the 3rd month), and finally (at the 6th month) cereal group depending on the tolerability of the patient. The daily protein target should be 60-80 grams or 1-1.5 g/kg/day (ideal weight). Protein needs should be met by including vegetable protein sources, with high bioavailability protein sources in the foreground. In general, you should not experience any sagging for 6 months and protein powder should be used in order to minimize muscle loss. Integrating the solid-liquid distinction into one’s life is also one of the most important points.
From the first stage to the last stage, it is very important for the person to eat as much probiotics as possible so that they do not experience intestinal problems.