Studies examining the relationship between obesity and psychopathology have been conducted and it was found that people with;
- lower self-perception,
- anxiety disorders (social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder),
- psychosocial inadequacy,
- sleep disorders,
- sexual dysfunctions
- and personality disorders are more likely to have these disorders compared to those with normal body weight.
In almost all treatment methods against obesity, it has been observed that after weight loss, when the patient is under severe stress or complacency, he/she returns to his old eating habit. Considering that every unsuccessful dieting behavior leads to the development of eating disorders and causes weight gain, it could be provided patients to lose weight permanently by using individual therapy and group therapy in addition to diet programs because with the therapy, it will be found the underlying cause of unhealthy eating behavior and intervention will be done according to it.
The Relationship Between Obesity Depression
Similar symptoms such as sleep problems, change in appetite, lack of sexual desire, uncontrolled food consumption are observed in obesity and depression. It is thought that depressive individuals experience more stress and this may lead to obesity in certain individuals. The effect of stress on obesity occurs through both psychological and physiological mechanisms. One of its primary effects is that it causes obesity by disrupting issues such as physical activity and healthy eating habits. Similarly, stress situations such as family separations and job loss lead to depression in a psychological way. Therefore, the physiological mechanism regulated by stress can affect both depression and obesity. In a major study carried out in Turkey, it was reported to be the most common disorder in obese patients is major depressive disorder. Although depression is a disorder that causes obesity, it can also occur as a symptom of obesity. One of the two most important symptoms of depression is;
- lack of self-esteem,
- loss of interest and desire
Although it is observed that the self-esteem levels of individuals with depression, increase during post-operative process when they begin to lose weight. It is necessary to receive psychological support despite the possibility of reluctance to continue diet.
The Relationship Between Obesity and Anxiety Disorders
Obesity has been reported to be associated with anxiety disorders in both men and women. When obese individuals are anxious, they eat excessively and try to reduce their eating anxiety. A study conducted on obese people in Turkey and it has been reported that social phobia is the most frequent diagnosis. Specific phobias are more common in overweight and obese women. Again, the rates of experiencing traumatic stressful life events in the last year are higher in overweight and obese women. Although they are often extremely obese people who live in isolation, women may experience greater social withdrawal from discrimination, and obesity is more severe in discriminated women than men. Panic disorder is reported to be more common in overweight men. Anxiety disorder can also affect the diet process after surgery. Anxious thoughts that the person will not be able to lose weight can prevent him from maintaining a diet. For this reason, getting away from these anxious thoughts with professional support and learning ways to cope with anxiety will reduce the desire to eat in difficult situations and provide healthier coping methods.
The Relationship Between Obesity and Obesity-Panic Attack
Panic attacks, suggesting that the world is coming to an end, occur suddenly, at an unexpected time and in a very unexpected way. During a panic attack, the patient experiences problems such as fear, anxiety and depression intensely. The changes in the affect of people in panic state can also cause problems in metabolism. Likewise, some mistakes made in the diet can cause psychological problems and subsequently panic attacks. Malnutrition triggers panic attacks and metabolic diseases. Hormones in the body are secreted more in some special cases. Adrenaline secreted in the state of excitement and fear causes situations such as palpitations, shortness of breath and hot flashes. Panic attack patients get stuck on issues that would normally not be cared about. Then, hormone oscillations that will trigger diseases such as blood pressure and diabetes in their bodies begin. Considering that all this metabolism is driven by substances formed as a result of the digestion of food, which is the source of life, it is seen how important nutrition is in panic attacks as in every disease. Some of the wrong eating habits increase the frequency and severity of panic attacks.
The Relationship Between Obesity and Personality Disorders
In studies conducted with adult patients with obesity, they suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder also plays a role in the etiology of advanced obesity in women, and that exposure to physical and sexual abuse is more common. In the research of Castelnuovo-Tedesso investigating 20 women with severe obesity; He did not find a significant psychological disorder, but he found that personality disorders, especially passive-aggressive personality disorder, were more common. He suggested that although the subjects had depressive characteristics, they were not at a severe level and that food intake was typically used to alleviate emotional deprivation. Although the studies conducted in this area in our country are limited, a study was conducted in which the psychological symptoms of obese adults and individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) were compared, and it was found that the obese group showed more psychological symptoms than healthy individuals and the general symptom distribution was similar to individuals with BPD, but in some areas. It has been determined that there are differences. Another study found that schizophrenia patients are more prone to be overweight or obese than the general population. According to the results of the research, this situation is more pronounced especially in female patients. Weight gain in schizophrenia may occur not only as a side effect of antipsychotic drugs, but also depending on the life and treatment conditions of the patients. Hospitalization can limit energy expenditure by reducing mobility. Control over eating behavior may be reduced due to conditions such as apathy (lack of emotion) or anhedonia (lack of enjoyment), or a carbohydrate-heavy eating habit may be mandatory due to low socioeconomic status and this leads to obesity.