Varicos vein is a condition that can be explained as the enlargement, elongation or twisting of the veins in the leg region. We can say that the incidence of varicose veins in the society increases with the advancing age. According to studies, 1 out of every 2 people over the age of 50 develops varicose veins.
At this point, it may be wondered who has varicose veins. Varicose veins are mostly seen in women. It is a rare problem in men. We can say that it also has a hereditary feature. If the patient has a problem with varicose veins in his family history, there is a high probability that he will also have it. However, we can say that varicose veins are also seen for the following reasons:
- Advancing age
- Standing for long periods
- Congestion in deep veins
- Valve deficiencies in veins
In addition to all these reasons, varicose veins can occur in patients due to different factors. We will also touch on the types of varicose veins or the causes of this problem. But first, let’s take a look at the symptoms of varicose veins.
What are the Symptoms of Varicose Veins?
The problem of varicose veins is one of the problems that manifest itself with various symptoms. We can list these symptoms as follows:
- Pain, fatigue and feeling of heaviness in the legs
- Increased pain sensation, especially after exertion or when standing for a long time
- Formation of capillaries in the leg area
- Swelling in ankles
- Having purple spots on the ankles
- Skin rash, itching or dryness
- In minor bumps or injuries, it takes much longer than normal to heal under the skin
- Bleeding more than normal in injuries and bumps
- Some patients have restless legs syndrome with varicose veins.
- Hardening of the subcutaneous fat layer
- Skin collapses on the ankles
When these symptoms occur, it would be beneficial to consult a doctor as soon as possible for the application of treatment.
Are There Types of Varicose Veins?
Of course, the problem of varicose veins is divided into different types. In general, it should be noted that we can consider varicose veins in 4 different groups.
- Spider Web Varicose Veins
Telangiectasia veins in spider web varicose veins show a very superficial appearance on the skin. Their diameter is usually around 1 mm or less. It is not possible to feel the spider web varicose by hand. Their color is mostly red. They can be star-shaped or look like a spider web. This type of varicose veins, which develops in the form of common lines, can be regional, as well as wrapping the entire leg over time.
- Reticular Varicose
In this type of varicose, called reticular, the veins appear slightly puffy from the skin. We can say that their diameter is usually around 4 mm or less. They are usually blue in color and are possible, although extremely difficult to palpate. We can say that the type of reticular varicose is also very common.
- Great Vein Varieties ( Saphen Vein Varieties)
This type of varicose forms large and wide folds. It is possible to see along the course of the great and small saphenous veins. They are extremely easy to see, both by hand and by eye. We can say that their diameter is generally larger than 3 mm. Because they occur under the skin, they usually do not cause any change in skin color. Only a greenish color, which is the color of the vein itself, can be observed. We can also say that they have a more fluffy appearance than the skin. They are more prominent when the patient is standing. If the patient raises his legs while lying down, their appearance disappears.
- Varicose Veins in the Deep
In this type of varicose veins are formed in a deep layer of the leg. Varicose veins are usually invisible when viewed from the outside, but they can cause significant edema in the leg area. We can say that they can cause circulatory disorders in the legs along with the edema problem.
Do Varicose Veins Cause Color Change in the Skin?
Not every varicose problem causes color change in the skin. However, we can say that some types of varicose veins can also cause this problem. In case of advanced varicose veins, different problems may occur along with color changes in the skin. These wounds problems, edema, and dryness of the skin complaints are examples.
What Causes Varicose Veins at a Young Age?
As we mentioned before, the problem of varicose veins usually occurs at later ages. However, it is possible to see varicose veins at young ages. Studies and researches give the following answers to the question of why the problem of varicose veins arises, especially at young ages:
- Lead a long sedentary life
- Occupations that require standing for long periods of time
- Frequent weight gain
- Use of certain birth control pills
- Frequent wearing high heels
- Failure to take some precautions during pregnancy
Varicose veins are one of the hereditary diseases. This problem may occur in people with a family history of varicose veins at a young age, regardless of the reasons listed above. In other words, genetic factors alone can be sufficient for the problem of varicose veins.
What are the Treatment Methods According to Varicose Types?
It would be useful to describe the stages of this disease before proceeding to treatment. Varicose veins stages are as follows:
- C0 – No visible or palpable disease
- C1 – Formation of spider or reticular capillaries
- C2 – Great vein varicose veins
- C3 -Edema in feet and ankles
- C4a -Color changes and eczema problem on the feet
- C4b – Skin changes, skin collapses
- Healed wounds in addition to C5 -C4
- C6 – Active ulcers with skin changes
Different approaches can be followed in the treatment of varicose veins. Here are some examples of commonly preferred treatments:
- Interventional Methods
Laser treatment can be applied for spider web and reticular varicose veins. These types of varicose veins usually do not cause various complaints in patients. The applied laser treatment is for aesthetic purposes. Transdermal laser treatment is generally preferred in the treatment of thin capillaries with a diameter of around 1 mm. In the treatment of those thicker than 1 mm, sclerotherapy can be applied. These two treatments are not alternatives to each other. They can be considered as complementary to each other. In laser treatment, the patient does not need to rest in the clinical setting.
- Surgical treatment
Sometimes, surgical methods can also be used in the treatment of varicose veins. We can list surgical treatments as stripping, intravenous thermal ablation and intravenous foam sclerotherapy.
Stripping treatment is the classical surgical method. The vein is removed along its length by making an incision in the groin or ankle. However, it may be preferable to clean the lateral branches in the lower knee area. Before this treatment method, the patient is given general anesthesia. Therefore, pain is not felt during the procedure . However, the patient may need to rest in the clinical setting for 1 day. There is also a one-week work ban after discharge.
Intravascular thermal ablation is performed with the help of a needle into the vein. We can say that the vein is closed by burning from the inside with a catheter that gives off a high rate of heat. In this method, it is possible to clean the enlarged side branches in the lower knee area. The procedure in question is an intervention performed under general or local anesthesia. It may be possible for the patient to return to his daily life after resting for a few days. Compared to the classical surgical method, we can say that the risk of complications is less in this intervention.
The intravascular foam sclerotherapy method is similar to the sclerotherapy used for capillaries. However, this method uses a concentrated drug. An incision is made in the groin area and the vein is tied at the junction with the deep vein. You can write your questions about the subject in the comment section.